Diabetes increases your risk of gum (periodontal disease).  Diabetes lowers resistance to infection.  Controlling blood sugar levels makes you less prone to developing oral infections.  Periodontal disease causes teeth to look long due to bone loss and eventually causes them to loosen and fall out.  Maintaining good oral hygiene at home is critical to achieving a healthy mouth.  Brush twice a day and clean between teeth with floss or interdental cleaner once a day.  Thrush is a fungal infection that produces white or red patches that may be sore and progress into ulcers.  It may attack the tongue, causing a painful burning sensation, and it can also cause difficulty in swallowing. Thrush seems to occur more frequently among people who smoke, wear dentures or need to be treated often with antibiotics.  High glucose (sugar) levels also increase this risk.  Antifungal medications prescribed by your dentist can treat this infection.