Two Neanderthals found in a cave in Belgium indicated that their diet included wooly rhinoceros and wild sheep characteristic of a steppe environment. Cave-dwelling Neanderthals in Spain indicated a diet of mushrooms, pine nuts, and moss that was typical of a forest environment. One Neanderthal, who had a dental abscess, consumed a plant that is known to contain salicylic acid, which is an active ingredient in aspirin. The calculus of this Neanderthal also contained genetic sequences of the natural antibiotic producing Penicillium from herbaceous material. These Neanderthals are smarter than we thought!